Help File for 3.10 Project

The progression from Achievement to Excellence

For Achievement
  • The research framework (which includes the topic, focus questions and action plan) is satisfactory, appropriate or apt.
  • The information collected from a range of sources is organised methodically; it is systematised. Accurately linking of evidence to focus questions. Justification of selected evidence by using appropriate notations to link evidence to focus questions. (e.g. FQ1: Classical concert attendance in Europe)
  • The findings are referenced with well-founded, logical conclusions made that draw everything together. The findings are presented in a satisfactory or appropriate way.

For Merit
  • The research framework (which includes the topic, focus questions and action plan) is appropriate, organised, well-structured, logical, detailed and exhaustive.
  • The information collected from a range of sources is organised efficiently and methodically; it is systematised successfully. Accurately linking of evidence to focus questions. Justification of selected evidence by using appropriate notations to link evidence to focus questions. (e.g. FQ1: Classical concert attendance in Europe)
  • The findings are developed over time (processed), substantiated with evidence and referenced with well-founded, logical, reasoned conclusions made that draw everything together. The findings are presented in a successful manner.

For Excellence
  • The research framework (which includes the topic, focus questions and action plan) is appropriate, organised and well-structured, logical and reasoned.
  • The information collected from a range of sources is organised efficiently and methodically; it is clearly and obviously systematised. Student should show initiative in locating potentially useful sources beyond the obvious, or perseverance with difficult sources. Accurately linking of evidence to focus questions. Justification of selected evidence by using appropriate notations to clearly and concisely link evidence to focus questions. (e.g. FQ1: Classical concert attendance in Europe)
  • The findings are developed over time (processed), substantiated with evidence revealing in-depth knowledge and understanding of the topic and referenced with well-founded, logical, reasoned, insightful conclusions made that draw everything together convincingly. The findings are presented in a persuasive and assured manner.

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

The WW Webster Dictionary, 1997, defines the word research as

1. Careful or diligent search
2. Studious inquiry or examination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws
3. The collecting of information about a particular subject
4. To search or investigate exhaustively 

Research is defined to include systematic and rigorous investigation directed to the discovery of unknown facts; the construction of explanatory theory; and, the construction of original works of significant artistic merit; It also includes the construction of an analysis or interpretation of existing human products of human, scientific, literary and artistic activity aimed at increasing the accuracy and depth of human understanding. Both should result in tangible output.

Research involves:
  • Getting background information in order to develop and refine a hypothesis, thesis, research question, problem or argument
  • Gathering data/information
  • Analyzing and interpreting the data/information in order to confirm or challenge the hypothesis AND to test or get evidence to support the thesis, hypothesis, question or problem. 

The Research Process

A. Designing the Project
  1. Introduction – What is your topic/purpose of the research? What is your hypothesis, thesis or argument? What do you already know?
    What is being brought to light? 
  1. Context/Rationale – the why! Why is the research being done and what is significant?

B. Accessing the Information
  1. Background – the ‘literature review’ or getting background information. Finding out what is already known and how your hypothesis compares with what’s already known. 


C. Reasoning with the Information
  1. Data gathering – how is this done (methodology)? From what/whom? Using what method(s) and tools (e.g. questionnaires, surveys, experiments, interviews) and over what period of time? How will you plug your knowledge gaps?

D. Transforming the Information
  1. Data analysis – breaking down (analyzing) the data, pulling it together (synthesizing) and explaining what this means (interpreting).
  2. Findings – what does the data say and what was found out?
  3. Discussion – How does what was found in #6 relate to the current state of knowledge in #3? What are the implications of your findings?

E.  Conclusion – what are the implications?

Research Process

Topic
Question 
Thesis, hypothesis or argument
Gathering Data/evidence and interpret to:
Answer the Question
Test thesis, hypothesis or argument
Using methods to gather data: experiment, document analysis, survey, questionnaire, interview, observations, quantitative, qualitative.
Present findings

SKILLS AND TRAITS NEEDED FOR EFFECTIVE RESEARCHING
Collated from Christchurch Course participants 2012
  • Organization/time management skills
  • Literacy skills/communication skills
  • Imagination
  • Time-management skills
  • ICT skills - word processing
  • Numeracy skills (data gathering, statistical anlysis)
  • Comprehension of methodology
  • Questionnaire/survey design/letter writing skills
  • Appreciation of non-linear process of research
  • Self-critiquing/peer critiquing skills
  • Lateral thinking skills
  • Initiative
  • Independence
  • Risk-taker
  • Application skills
  • Passion
  • Methodical
  • Listening to, accepting others’ ideas
  • Open to constructive feedback/feedforward
  • Interaction with peers and mentors
  • Reading and comprehension skills
  • Processing skills
  • Analysis skills
  • Ability to question and judge quality
  • Interpretation skills
  • Collation/data collecting
  • Perseverance
  • Flexibility
  • Presentation skills
  • Ability to write concisely
  • Creativity
  • Curiosity
  • Questioning/reasoning skills
  • Confidence
  • Ability to limit extend research parameters

An example of an applied research process in action:
A.  Designing the Project
Purpose: To research information on, create and perform choral music suitable for a Years 7/8 choir. What constitutes ‘good’ choral music for Yr7/8 choirs?
Context: Having researched a range of choral music being used by Years 7/8 choirs, I wish to create a piece of choral music for an Yr7/8 choir to perform. I enjoy working with children and hope that I can create music that is responsive to the needs, interests, experiences and skill level of this age group. I myself am a singer and have been involved with choirs for 7 years. I have also written music for voice as part of my NCEA assessment for the composition standards in Level 1 and 2.
Analysis: Topic OverviewMapping the topic and filling the gaps will show how I am starting:

CHORAL MUSIC FOR YRS 7/8 CHOIRS:
1. Voice Development            2. Repertoire              3. Motivation/Theme               4. Composing for Young Voices
1.1 Anatomy of the Voice       2.1 Overseas              3.1 Stories - Context               4.1 Drawing together findings
                                              2.2 NZ                        3.2 Style                                 4.2 Style
1.2 Range                                                                3.3 Extras                               4.3 Composing Process
1.3 Issues                                                                                                              4.4 Performance & Evaluation

ACTION PLAN:
I will need to complete an action plan with dates for completion:
  • Do background research – library and web searches on the anatomy of the voice, voice ranges, types etc. Interview experts.
  • Investigate the range of repertoire available in NZ and overseas? Design interview questionnaires and seek ethical approval to interview composers? performers? choir trainers?
  • Design interview questionnaires and seek ethical approval to interview Yr 7/8 students who are in choirs to find out what they enjoy singing and why? What motivates them? What styles of music do they like and why?
  • Decide on timespan for interviews.
  • Organize and analyse the data I have collected
  • Write up research 
  • Present my findings

B. Accessing the Information 

1. General
Before I start I need to acquire a lot of background information. This is quite new for me. For me ‘good’ choral music for Yrs 7/8 students must include . . . . . (own ideas). I’ve heard intermediate school aged children singing at the Primary Schools’ Music Festival in the Town Hall in Christchurch over 2 years, but I need to talk to choir trainers and children who are members of Yr 7/8 choirs. I will need to have some information on the voice – its anatomy and caring for it. I will need to know what sounds can be produced by the voice, and in particular vowel sounds. I’ll need to know the physiology of breathing and effective posture. I will need to know how voices ‘work’ in combination – voice matching and be able to examine voice ranges and types. All this will inform my own composition work. I’ll need to get material on repertoire and find information on what motivates and engages young singers. I will need to look in the library and surf the web. I will probably spend a good couple of hours in the library, photocopying useful info and keeping a record of sources. I will SURF the web for an hour, bookmark good sites and then go back to extract useful information and summarise it. I will need to cut and paste URLs into a word processing file. I need to think of what search terms I will use to narrow my search. I need to think how I am going to sort and file the material I find, using the codes in my topic map e.g. 2.2 NZ repertoire

e.g. www.musicforkids.com
1.3 considers a number of issues for young choirs
2.1 has loads of info on American folk and contemporary music for young singers
4.2 has a composing competition under several headings e.g. comic, choralography

Although I know of some repertoire for choirs, this has been mainly through my involvement with our school choir, ‘Mucho Musos’. I am sure that after talking with some choir trainers, and examining repertoire that has formed part of the Primary Schools’ Music Festival repertoire over several years, that I will increase my knowledge in this area. As well as information that I have gathered from books and websites, I will need to formally interview composers, performers, choir trainers and choir members to gather qualitative data. This will probably take a couple of weeks. I will need to keep a careful track of any INFO gaps that become apparent. I’ll need to get ethical approval and design questionnaires. 

I have also thought about contacting SOUNZ, who can provide me with a list of composers and titles of pieces that are suitable for Yrs 7/8 – I will have to find out whether I can actually get samples of the music though. I might even be able to talk to composers such as David Hamilton, who have written a lot of music for children. I will need to know who is writing choral music for kids and what sort of music is it. This will help broaden my knowledge of NZ composers of choral music for children. I know there are websites that I can surf to learn of overseas composers who write for children. A friend also told me that northern Europe has a thriving tradition of choral music for children.

I also need to find out what texts Yrs 7/8 children enjoy engaging with and why. Perhaps there are stories that have been set to music (e.g. legends)? I would also like to know what styles or types of songs they enjoy and are motivated to sing. Perhaps there are traits or attitudes that singers have?

2. Creating
I will need to consider the following:
  • What text(s) will I set and why? Where will I get these? Will I write my own?
  • What style shall I write in and why?
  • How many parts will I set?
  • What will the vocal range be?
  • What key shall I write in and how will I notate the music?
  • How will I heighten the meaning of the words in music?
  • Whom will I get feedback from and how often?

3. Experts
I need to obtain background information and contacts – who is involved with Yrs 7/8 choirs in Christchurch, NZ, overseas? How wide can I go within 10 weeks?
Who trains Yrs 7/8 choirs locally?
Where and how often do the choirs rehearse?
Who would be prepared to help me with my research e.g. SOUNZ, NZCF, Primary Schools’ Music Festival group??

4. Performing
Who will perform my music for the choir? Who will teach and conduct it? Who will the performance be presented to? Where will the first performance take place? How will it be reviewed?

C. Reasoning with the Information
I’ve made a grid with all the sections (Topic Map 1 – 4) to summarise the info I collect from texts, electronic sources and from interviews.
I’ve also done a ‘pro/con’ sheet so that I can evaluate my own composition – checking to ensure that my piece incorporates key aspects of my research.

D. Transforming info into knowledge
I wish to present my research as an oral report and through performance of an original composition for Yr 7/8 choir. I will include:
  1. Introduction - What constitutes ‘good’ choral music for Yr7/8 choirs and why?
  2. Background – presenting own ideas (theses) & what is already known
  3. Data gathering – interview data, personal contacts, NZCF/SOUNZ information
  4. Data analysis – how I analysed the data and synthesized it to create an original composition which will be rehearsed and performed. This composition will be evaluated using criteria.
e.g. 
 composition is suitably written for young voice ranges
 composition style is appealing and appropriate

(adapted from: Gawith, G. Research Success. ESA Publications (NZ) Ltd. 2002. 
Example by Chris Archer, Secondary Music Advisor, Christchurch College of Education, 2004.)

Research Scenarios
Use these ideas to do some basic practice with the different elements on the Research Process How-To, or to give you some ideas for research projects. Use the Research Planning Sheet to lay out the framework for your research and to keep track of what you find and where you find it. Remember that your ideas need to be backed up with factual information.

Situation 1:
You've been discussing the demise of classical music concerts with some of your friends. One of them is adamant that orchestral music is a dying art form and that there is no need for it in an electronic/technological age, but you aren't so sure. To refute this claim, you need some facts. Research some background information on attendance at classical music concerts, attitudes of the public towards live classical music and then be ready to debate whether or not the future looks glum or not.

Situation 2:
Your city is getting ready to institute tougher restrictions on teenagers attending live music events during weekends, due to alcohol and drugs related offences. Among your friends, most are complaining because they think teens are being unfairly targeted. You don't like the idea of not being able to see and hear live music and you think that authorities have not considered other avenues or have presented alternatives. Research what other cities/countries have done to encourage teenagers to attend music events in safe and appropriate environments. 

Situation 3:
You've come into a windfall and you are planning to make a major purchase of a grand piano. Find out about the various manufacturers, prices and features. Determine what manufacturing features you prefer and why. Then use your "market research" to determine what the best buy for you would be. Defend your choice with the data you found that supports your decision. 

Research Challenges
What advice would you give students who are - 
  • Procrastinating? 
  • Can’t organize their way out of a shoe-box?
  • Not checking progress with you?
  • Suffering from information overload?
  • Wasting time? Unmotivated?
  • Using poor resources?
  • Are not thinking or making judgements about the quality of the information they are using?
  • Just copying and reproducing screeds of information from books and websites?
  • Waffling on and on and on and on and on and on and on?
  • Plagiarizing information?
  • Are not referencing material adequately?

Research Process Practice
DESIGN THE RESEARCH PROJECT AND FRAMEWORK 
Choose a topic or select a research scenario. State what this is.
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Design the hypothesis, thesis, research question, problem or argument. What is the purpose of your research?
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What type of research is it? What type of data/information will need to be collected?
    • Will it involve an experiment to confirm a hypothesis or theory – involving statistical methods of gathering and analyzing data?
    • Will it involve interviews, observations, questionnaires, text/content analysis or case studies?
    • Will it involve analyzing a problem or need and researching and designing a product, service or solution?
______________________________________________________________

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4. What are the steps (and interim deadlines) appropriate to the topic (the Research Framework) and research purpose? Use the template below:

STEP
ACTION
COMPLETE BY
1Analyse and map topic, INFOgaps, search terms
2Background reading
3Gather data/information
4Analyse data/information
5Plan and draft report
6Revise draft
7Present findings

B. ACCESS THE INFORMATION
How and where will you get the data/information?
_____________________________________________________________

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How will you plug the INFOgaps? Why is this important for filtering information?
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How will you index the information found in 2 to create a filing system?
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Choose ONE piece of text related to any of the INFOgaps. Flexi read it (see Reading Skills) and make flexi notes.
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C. REASON WITH THE INFORMATION
Describe how you will process the information through application of thinking/reasoning skills.
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Does your topic lends itself to the use of any analyse and synthesis diagrams?
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Do you need to compare and contrast, work out cause and effect, etc?
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D. TRANSFORM THE INFORMATION INTO NEW KNOWLEDGE

What will you include in your report, essay, thesis, paper or presentation? 
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What are the characteristics of a good report? presentation?
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adapted from: Gawith, G. Research Success.
ESA Publications (NZ) Ltd. 2002.

Research Skills
  • Planning skills – what steps will we taken to ensure success?
  • Time management skills – macro/micro; don’t procrastinate.
  • Reading skills, including location and skim reading skills
  • Library search skills
  • Internet search skills
  • Interviewing and questioning skills
  • Notemaking skills
  • Organizational skills
  • Analyzing/synthesizing skills
  • Report planning skills
  • Report writing skills
  • Referencing skills
  • Presentation skills

PlanningWork out what needs to be done and when. Use the DART framework (Gawith, 1999) -
Design – define/analyse/map the topic. Work out what you need to know. Map the INFOgaps – see Library Search Skills and design your plan of attack. Make sure you understand key terminology/vocabulary.
FINISH BY _______________________
Access – background reading. Where will you find then access the info to plug the INFO gaps? Do it!! Surf the Net then review the material in-depth. Select and record info relevant to the INFOgaps, summarizing as you go along. Accurately record ALL sources.
FINISH BY _______________________
Collect data FINISH BY _______________________
Code and analyse data FINISH BY _______________________
Have data coding and analysis checked FINISH BY _______________________
Reason - Think lots about the purpose of the research. Analyse and apply the data/info, working out what it means in relation to the hypothesis, thesis, question(s) etc. DON’T just write out heaps of info and leave to work out later.
FINISH BY _______________________
Transform – pull together info/data/ evidence from all sources to provide evidence for the original hypothesis, thesis, question etc. Use diagrams, graphs. figures and tables, if appropriate, to show what these findings mean. Structure the key findings. Review and revise
FINISH BY _______________________
Completed Project: FINISH BY _______________________
Consider completing a research plan (adapted from History 3.1 – E V2 Internal Assessment Activity, MOE Feb 2004, Crown copyright): 
This Research Plan is to be completed and handed in by .


AIM OF THE INVESTIGATION: 
FOCUSSING QUESTIONS
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
TYPE OF INFORMATION EXPECTED
TIME AND MANAGEMENT PLAN DATE OR STAGE
PROPOSED ACTION TO COMPLETE RESEARCH
TASK DONE
TEACHER SIGNATURE: ___________________________
STUDENT SIGNATURE  ___________________________

Reading Skills
Reading something several times, changing pace and technique, will aid understanding and recall – this is called flexi-reading.
SURF
Surf the text to get an overview
SLURP
Read sections more deeply for meaning
SUMMARISE
Make notes/diagrams or mind map

Library Search Skills
When searching – 
  1. Know what your covers. Once you know your hypothesis, thesis, problem, argument or question, use text-books, dictionaries and encyclopaedias to work out what the topic covers.
  2. Map sub-topics – note in bullet form, relevant info on the topic.
  3. List what you need to find out (INFOgaps) – under each sub-topic heading, list INFOgaps using a GAPmap (see Organisational Skills). Identify correct terminology and synonyms as you search terms.

Then, plug the gaps. Do you need:
  • Newspapers, periodicals, websites, brochures? Track them down. Check dates.
  • Specific NZ info? Use INNZ – index to NZ periodicals.

Use only authoritative info – preferably text, preferably in-depth. Use people to help. Consider visual and others materials such as posters, brochures, video/DVD, CDs, CD-ROMs etc.

ALWAYS record bibliographic details.

Internet Search Skills
Complete the same steps as for library search skills i.e.
  • Work out the research target
  • Map the topic
  • Work out the INFO gaps and search terms/questions to filter the info

The internet can be frustrating because search engines all work differently. Some are engines, some are dictionaries (organized by subject like Yahoo) and some are meta search engines. All use different protocols and they all only search a small portion of the WWW.

So, start by getting to know ONE search engine and meta-searcher well. www.google.com is a good general all purpose too and www.hotbot.com is a useful meta-search engine. Remember the + or “ marks for searching for a whole term. e.g. “western European classical music”.

Interviewing and Questioning Skills
You can use Yellow pages to hunt for organizations relevant to your topic. A contact name is always useful however. When contacting someone, be as specific and professional as you can be – appreciate his or her expert knowledge. Do this by:
  • Explaining the purpose of the research
  • Saying how ling the interview will take
  • Asking for written support info if appropriate
  • Inquiring as to whether the interview could be recorded
  • Asking specific questions (who, what, why, where, when, how) Get factual info first, then ask more ‘thinking’, inferential questions.
  • Acknowledge and thank the interviewee

Notemaking Skills
Make summaries - SURF then deep read, then summarise key points:
  • Make bullet points
  • 1 sentence summaries per paragraph
  • Original shorthand (eg @ for at)
  • Wide margins
  • Highlighting
  • Punctuation (eg NB! *** !)
  • mind maps

TOPIC
Define unknown terms and synonyms and search for info. Consider areas in which more information needs to be obtained.
Organise work into numbered manilla folders. This is a good way of keeping an eye on how much info you are collecting under each sub-topic.

Analysis (pulling apart) and Synthesis Skills (pulling together)
The GAPmap is the first level of analysis. After information has been gathered (i.e. data collection) – processing (thinking and reasoning) needs to occur through –
  • classifying and categorizing
  • comparing and contrasting
  • linking and matching to show relationships
  • establishing cause and effect, problem analysis
  • listing and sequencing  - pros and cons, sequence of actions, steps, events etc
  • synthesis – pulling together material
Mindmaps, linear grams, concept webs, fish diagrams and rubrics and help to break down info, compare, contrast, sequence, analyse and synthesise it.

Report Planning Skills
The research process is NOT linear and is often iterative and’ messy’. A report format helps to sort this ‘messiness’. Consider the template below:
Introduction Include ‘the question’, background, context or rationale 
Process
data gathering, data analysis

Eurekafindings, discussion

Conclusion

How much – a page?

Appendix(es)
If needed

References accurate


Bibliography
If needed

Report Writing Skills
Whether it is a hard copy or multimedia report - be clear, concise and coherent. Draft, redraft and redraft. Sentences should make sense. Plan each section as bullet points (e.g. from GAP map) then expand these into sentences and then into paragraphs making sure that they link. Don’t ramble – get to the point – each word needs to earn its place! Don’t misspell – there is No excuse for this. Use word processing tools or www.dictionary.com

Try this checklist:
 No overly long sentences
 Sentences and paragraphs are linked together
 Diagrams and illustrations are linked to text
 Extras (e.g. graphics, colours, fonts) are essential for making information clearer and are not gratuitous
 Multimedia report is easy to navigate around

Referencing Skills
Acknowledge the source of all ideas, words and images copied (quoted from), paraphrased or adapted. Abusing intellectual property is THEFT.

Referencing involves stating:
  • WHO it belongs to
  • WHAT it’s called
  • WHERE it was found
There are three types of referencing:
  • Embedded text references – e.g. ‘Grape (2003) refers to the musical notation . . .’
  • Reference lists at the end of the text – any thing referred to in the embedded text references e.g. Grape, B. (2003). History of Music. Timbuktu: Minim Press.
  • Bibliography – a complete lists of ANY books/resources used.
Most school students are not asked for embedded text references, and only require a reference list as a bibliography at the end.

The MLA Works Cited Format is a common referencing style used:
Books:  
For a book with one author:
Fairbanks, Carol.  Prairie Women: Images in American and Canadian Fiction.
New Haven: Yale UP, 1998.

For a book by two or more authors:
Berry, Jason, Jonathan Foose, and Tad Jones.  Up from the Cradle of Jazz: 
New Orleans Music since World War II.  Athens: U of Georgia P, 1997.

For a book with no author’s name on the title page:
Encyclopedia of Photography.  New York:  Crown, 1997.

For a work in an anthology :
Rubenstein, Arye.  “Children with AIDS and the Public Risk.”  AIDS: Facts and
Issues.  Ed. Victor Gong and Norman Rudnick.  New Brunswick: Rutgers, UP, 1999.  99-103.

For an article in an encyclopedia:
“China.”  Encyclopedia Americana.  1999 ed. 

For books in series:    
Rifkin, Jeremy.  “Humans Should Not Be Genetically Redesigned.” Genetic Engineering.
Ed. William Dudley.  Opposing Viewpoints Ser.  San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999.  72-78.

Online Books :
Austen, Jane.  Pride and Prejudice.  Ed. Henry Churchyard. 1997.  10 Sept. 1999. 
http://www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/pridprej.html

Print Magazines and Newspapers : 
Print Magazine:
Prince, Dinah.  “Marriage in the ‘90’s.”  New York 1 June 1999:30-38.

Print Newspaper:
Tucker, Cynthia.  “Education Stays on Top of Southerners’ Agenda.”   Atlanta Constitution  21 Mar. 1997: 19A.

Online Resources from a Subscription Service available at libraries:
Magazines in Electric Library, Proquest Direct or Newsbank :
Cook, William J. “Life in space.”  U.S. News & World Report  25 Mar. 1999: 108-112+. 
Electric Library.  Sehome High School Library, Bellingham.  25 Apr. 2000. 
< http://www.elibrary.com/s/edumark/>

An Interview :
Lehrer, Jim.  Interview with Al Gore and George W. Bush. News Hour with Jim Lehrer.  PBS. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions. 26/WETA, Washington D.C.  5 Oct. 2000.

Poussaint, Alvin F.  Telephone interview.  10 Dec. 1999.
Asmundson, Mark.   Personal interview.  22 July 2000

Videotape, DVD, slides, filmstrip :
Medicine at the Crossroads.  Prod.  13/WNET and BBC TV.  Videocassette.  
PBS Video, 1999. 

CD-ROM or Computer Software Resources :
World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia
“Acid Rain.”  World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia.  Chicago: World Book.  CD-ROM. 1999.

Internet Resources :  
Internet Web Page:    (use this protocol:  1. title of project or website   2.  Name of editor if given 3. electronic publication information, including date of publication or latest update, and sponsoring institution or organization  4. date of access and network address.)

Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. 26 May 1998.  Library of Congress,

Washington. 19 June 1998. <http://thomas.loc.gov/>.

E-MAIL communication
McLain, Deborah. "Nile River Research Project results."  Email to maryk@aol.com 
25 Sept. 2000.
(adapted from: Gawith, G. Research Success. ESA Publications (NZ) Ltd. 2002.)

ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR THE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH

The following statement of principles adapted for student researchers is based on the ethical guidelines for researchers, adopted by the New Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE), in December 1981. 

A.   General PrinciplesThe rights and welfare of research subjects generally should take precedence over the self-interest of student researchers. In the conduct and reporting of research there should be thoughtful concern for the rights and interests of all the individuals, groups and institutions involved in and affected by it.

All research work should be done and reported objectively and frankly. Opinions supported by evidence should be clearly distinguished from research findings.

There should be in all aspects of research a spirit of open enquiry and open discussions. Research findings should be expressed in such a way that is readily understood by others.

Review by teachers/supervisors is generally considered to be an important part of the research process.

B.   Principles Relating to Research Subjects 
1.  Adverse effects
Care should be taken not to disturb or cause anxiety to subjects by the research procedures that are used or by the details in the research report.

When research projects take time away from regular teaching and learning activities, care should be taken that such actions do not hinder the student researcher’s educational progress or the school’s main purpose of providing quality educational programmes. 

If there are any doubts or unknowns concerning the effects of a research procedure on subjects, active steps should be taken to protect subjects from any kind of harm and to get the consent of all parties concerned after the possible risks are explained to them.

In addition, schools need to respect the principles within The Privacy Act 1993 with regard to the using research participants. 

2. Informed Consent
Before subjects are involved in a project they should be given a clear description of what the research involves. Their consent to being involved should be voluntary and they should have the right to withdraw at any time. Student researchers undertaking a study in their school need to identify and address issues and risks to participants for non-participation or withdrawal.

HIDDEN PURPOSES - If the real purpose of a study cannot for a good reason be told to the subjects, then special steps such as teacher review should be taken to ensure subjects are not harmed in any way by the research procedures. Appropriate debriefing procedures should be used when the study has been completed.
OTHER STUDENTS - When other students are involved in a study, informed consent should be obtained from their parents or others who are responsible for them.

3. Confidentiality and anonymity
Research must respect the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality and anonymity. Any individual test results or other private matters should be kept strictly confidential unless express permission to present these has been given by those affected and unless the people involved and any others responsible for them are fully aware of possible effects of the research presentation. 

C.   Principles Relating to Reporting ResearchStudent researchers are required to share the product of their research and will be subject to critical assessment.

Specifically, student researchers are required to pay attention to the following matters:
  • methodological validity
  • confidentiality and anonymity
  • sharing findings with others
  • reporting findings in a faithful and accurate manner

SCHOOL LETTERHEAD
Declaration of Consent

Participant

I consent to participate in the project, Instrumental Practising Techniques for NCEA Students.

I have understood the information provided to me about the research project and what will be required of me if I participate in the project.

I understand that the information I provide to the researcher will be treated as confidential and that no findings that could identify either me or my school will be published.

I understand that my participation in the project is voluntary and that I may withdraw from the project at any time without incurring any penalty. 

Signature:  ____________________________________
Parent/Guardian

I give permission for ______________________________  to participate in the project, Instrumental Practising Techniques for NCEA Students.

I have read and understood the information provided to me concerning the research project and what will be required of participants.

I am satisfied that ________________________ understands what will be required of participants in the project.

I understand that the information participants provide to the researcher will be treated as confidential and that no findings that could identify either them or their school will be published.

I understand that participation in the project is voluntary and that either I or the participant may choose to withdraw from the project at any time without incurring any penalty. 

Name: _______________________________
Date: ______________
Signature: _______________________________

SCHOOL LETTERHEAD 

Information for Participants and their Parents/Guardians
My name is Student A.  I am working towards NCEA Level 3 at Quaver College.  As part of my programme I am required to undertake a research project.  I will be working under the supervision of my teacher, Mr Musica. 

My research project is called: 

The relationship between effective practising techniques and competent performance presentation.

What is the aim of the project?

Brief statement . . .

What types of participants are being sought?

I am looking for students doing NCEA music Levels 1 – 3 at our school. 

What will participants be asked to do?

Students will be asked to fill out questionnaires that ask . . . 

How long will it take to fill in the questionnaires and the diary?

The student questionnaires will take approximately 30 minutes to complete and will be done at lunchtime under the supervision of the student researcher and the classroom teacher. 

Are there potential risks involved and how will they be managed?

Brief statement if needed . . . .

Will anyone be able to find out my answers?

No finding which could identify any individual participant will be published. Your anonymity will be protected because names will be removed from all questionnaires and replaced by code numbers once questionnaires are analysed. Only my teacher and I will have access to this data. 

Do I have to participate in this study?
No.  Participation is voluntary.

If I choose to participate, can I change my mind and withdraw from the study?

If you agree to participate you may withdraw your consent at any time. You may do this by notifying me by phone or in writing or by simply not returning the questionnaire. Not participating in the research will not disadvantage you in any way.

The School Ethics Committee/Liaison has reviewed and approved this study.

Complaints Procedure
The school requires that all participants be informed that if they have any complaint concerning the manner in which a research project is conducted, it may be given to the researcher, or, if an independent person is preferred, to:

Ethical Clearance Committee/Liaison
The school address and contact number

Please contact me if you have any other queries or concerns about the project. I can be reached by phone on: 03 xxx xxxx Ext xxxx or by email: xxxxx.xxxx@xxxx.co.nz

Thank you.
(Signature) 
Student A